기업경영연구, Vol.24 no.4 (2017)
pp.107~132

감정노동과 감정소진의 관계에 대한 교차 수준 연구 : 고객공격행동 경험 및 고용유형의 조절 효과

공혜원

(서울대학교 경영학과 박사후 연구원)

전주언

(안양대학교 경영학과 조교수)

본 연구는 서비스 조직 근로자들의 심리건강에 부정적 영향을 미칠 수 있는 요인을 규명하기 위해 먼저 감정노동(표면행위, 내면행위) 및 고객공격행동 경험이 근로자의 감정소진에 미치는 효과에 대해 탐색하였고, 아울러 감정노동과 감정소진의 관계가 고객공격행동 경험에 따라 차이가 있는지 개인 내 차이를 검증하였다. 마지막으로, 감정노동과 감정소진, 고객공격행동 경험과 감정소진의 관계가 고용유형(정규직, 비정규직)에 따라 다른 양상을 보이는지에 대한 교차수준의 조절효과를 규명하였다. 실증검증을 위해 일지조사법으로 설계했고, 은행근로자 56명을 대상으로 온라인 설문을 통해 자료를 수집했다. 반복측정을 통해 총 616개의 자료가 실증검증에 활용되었다. 분석 결과 고객공격행동 경험 및 표면행위가 감정소진에 미치는 개인 내 차이가 있는 것으로 확인되었다. 구체적으로 근로자들의 표면행위는 감정소진을 유발하지만, 내면행위는 관련이 없는 것으로 확인되었다. 또한 고객공격행동 경험은 근로자들의 감정소진을 증가시키는 것으로 확인되었고, 표면행위와 감정소진의 정적 관계는 고객공격행동 경험이 높을수록 더 강하게 나타나는 것으로 분석되었다. 마지막으로 비정규직 근로자들은 정규직 근로자들에 비해 표면행위를 할수록, 고객공격행동 경험이 높을수록 더 높은 감정소진을 경험하는 것으로 나타났다. 이상의 연구결과에 근거하여 감정노동에 따른 감정소진은 역동적임을 밝히고 이에 대한 논의가 이루어졌다.

Daily Emotional Regulation, Customer Aggression, and Emotional Exhaustion : Examining The Role of Customer Aggression and Employment Type

Kong, Hyewon

Jeon, Joo-Eon

Previous studies related to existing emotional labor have mostly been cross-sectional studies focusing on static differences in emotional regulation between individuals at a single point (Scott & Barnes, 2011). However, the studies which took a between-individual approach has a limitation in that within-individual variation is implicitly treated as error variance, even though the variance is theoretically meaningful (Judge et al., 2006). Thus, researches should be extended to take into account emotional labor occurring within individuals over time to more fully understand emotional labor. With this in mind, we examine the dynamical relationship between emotional exhaustion and daily customer aggression and emotional labor by taking multilevel approach. In addition, we explored whether customer aggression and employment type (regular and non-regular employees) moderate the relationship between daily emotional labor and emotional exhaustion. Also we examined that the moderating effect of customer aggression on the relationship between daily emotional labor and emotional exhaustion. It was hypothesized that 1) Within individual, customer aggression will increase emotional exhaustion 2) Within individual, surface acting will increase emotional exhaustion 3) The positive relationship between customer aggression and emotional exhaustion will be stronger for high level of surface acting 4) The positive relationship between customer aggression and emotional exhaustion will be stronger among non-regular employees compared to regular employees 5) The positive relationship between surface acting and emotional exhaustion will be stronger among non-regular employees compared to regular employees. In order to verify the relationships empirically, we designed diary method. The data were collected through online questionnaires form bankers. A HLM (hierarchical linear modeling) was used to test the hypotheses. Results are as follows. First, it was confirmed that surface acting increased the emotional exhaustion. Second, the employees who experienced customer aggression increased emotional exhaustion.Third, the positive relationship between surface acting and emotional exhaustion was stronger for the employees who experienced high level of customer aggression. Lastly, the positive relationships between surface acting and customer aggression were shown in non-regular employees. Based on the above results, it is argued that emotional events and emotional labor in the workplace are dynamic, and emotional exhaustion of the employees can be different within individuals.

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